How to choose high-quality milk?
The smell, taste (if, of course, there is an opportunity to try) and the appearance of milk will tell you about its quality. For example, when bacteria enter the milk, a characteristic smell of a spoiled product appears, the color and texture may also be unusual.
The Spanish Association of Standardization and Certification AENOR, in the framework of the European program, assigns the Bienestar Animal mark (“Good condition of animals”) to high-quality milk produced in Spain. Royal Decree 405/2010 regulates the use of the Letra Q logo on the labeling of milk and dairy products, confirming compliance with hygiene standards in all processes.
According to the new decree 1181/2018 of January 22, 2019, when marking the goods, not only the place of origin of milk will be indicated, but also the place of processing.
TYPES OF SPANISH MILK:
The buyer has the right to know how many nutrients the product contains and whether the milk is natural. Spain has adopted its own milk labeling.
Leche Fresca (fresh milk), fat content 3.5–5%.
The natural product undergoes soft pasteurization (heating to 60 ° C for 60 minutes or at a temperature of 70–80 ° C for 30 minutes). Retains 100% of its original natural properties. The most “healthy” milk. Suitable for seniors and children.
Leche Entera (whole milk), fat content 3.5–4%.
This is fresh milk that has undergone ultra-pasteurization (holding milk for 2–4 seconds at 135–140 ° C with rapid cooling to 32 ° C). Loses part of its original taste, but retains all the properties of fresh milk. Suitable for 3-6 months. Although Nordic countries and the United States prefer to consume fresh milk, Leche Entera is the most popular in Spain. It has a high content of saturated fats. It is not recommended for those who are fond of diets for weight loss, people with overweight and cardiovascular diseases.
Leche Semidesnatada (bold milk), fat content 1.5-1.8%.
Whole milk with less fat. It contains fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and other compounds present in milk fat, necessary for the growing body. Recommended for children and adults who maintain a stable weight.
Leche Desnatada (skim milk), fat content less than 0.5%.
This whole milk is practically free of fat. However, it does have proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals found in raw milk. Fat-soluble vitamins are added to the composition, which are lost when fat is removed. The nutritional value of skim milk is the same as regular milk. The difference is that because of the minimum fat content, it has a lower energy value.
Leche sin lactosa (milk without lactose)
It is made from skim milk. Most of the lactose, or milk sugar, is removed, replaced by glucose and galactose. The remaining nutrients in the milk remain completely in their original form.
There are two types of Leche sin lactosa:
1) with a low lactose content - 0.1-1.8 g per 100 ml (compared with 4.7 g in ordinary milk);
2) milk without lactose - the lactose content is less than 0.1 g per 100 ml.
Lactose-free milk speeds up digestion, therefore it is useful for all lovers of dairy products.
Leche organica (organic milk, or "milk")
Despite the high cost of the product, the demand for environmentally friendly bio-milk is growing every day. The European Union has developed criteria for caring for animals that produce organic milk.
Animals must graze in free conditions.
The diet of animals should consist of field herbs and fodder (a mixture of leaves, stems and roots).
Meadows and other grazing sites should not be treated with pesticides or herbicides. If these funds were used, then the methods of their use should comply with EU rules.
Hormones cannot be used to increase milk productivity.
Antibiotics can be used only if necessary, for the treatment of a specific disease.
A “dry period” must be observed: until the time of birth, milking is suspended for a period of approximately 45 days, the pregnant animal is resting.
The term BIO is synonymous with environmental. If the BIO label is used, it means that the product is ecological and organic.
Studies show that when an animal is calm, full and quite, it produces milk with more calcium than when it is stressed. The content of cows must comply with the following principles:
convenient place for permanent residence;
good medical care;
living in a natural habitat.
The ethical component has the greatest influence: the responsibility for the well-being of animals lies with man.
Top 8 Leche Entera Brands in Supermarkets
Spanish supermarkets offer a large selection of quality and delicious dairy product. Each region has its own priorities. The Organization of Consumers and Users of Spain (OCU) helps to determine the best, which made up the top 8 brands of whole milk, based on an analysis of the chemical, food and taste properties of the product.
1. Pascual - a manufacturer from Castile and Leon takes the first position in the ranking.
Pascual is Spain's first largest trademark with a Bienestar animal certificate confirming animal welfare on the farms of the manufacturer.
2. Hacendado - from the Valencian company Mercadona, purchases and manufactures products throughout Spain from more than 3,000 national breeders.
Milk was recognized as one of the best offers on the market in 2014.
3. Consum - a Catalan manufacturer, part of the French concern Lactalis. One of the advantages of the product is its competitive price.
4. Kaiku is a sales leader in the Basque Country and Navarre.
5. Gallega - milk from Galicia, the brand guarantees high taste and full compliance with environmental standards.
6. Deleite - produced by the Galician company Leite Noso, which owns the Muuu brand.
7. Carrefour - quality and price meet the needs of the consumer; The main suppliers of dairy products are from Galicia and Asturias.
8. Muuu - a product of Galician origin, the best value for money.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 2001 proclaimed June 1 as World Milk Day. The UN has proposed the establishment of this special day, "to focus on milk and everything connected with it, as one of the most important elements of human life."
Spain is not only the sea, sun and sand.
Spanish milk is on the list of cult foods along with jamon, cheeses and seafood.